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    Archived pages: 30 . Archive date: 2014-10.

  • Title: Pilot Examiner Home
    Descriptive info: .. Fearless Flight Test.. Cirrus Standardized Instructor and G-1000 Approved!.. Pilot Examiner for Sport Pilot to Multi-Engine ATP Tests in the.. Rochester FSDO.. Schedule: Flight Test with David.. Approved for CFI; initial sport, added class, renewal and reinstatement.. Ready To Test?.. Airworthy Airplane?.. Experience Check.. Endorsements Check.. IACRA Registration.. Flight Training Advice.. Contact David.. Test Day?.. Common Errors (oops!).. On-Line Guidance.. FAR On-Line.. AIM On-Line.. Experience Checklist.. Endorse: 61.. 65E.. Endorsements.. Guidance Sport Tests.. CFI Tools.. Are They Ready?.. Articles to Download.. Pitch and Power.. Maneuvering Flight.. Motivation.. Why Lesson Plan?.. John Lynch CFR 61.. John Lynch CFR 141.. Adventures.. SanDiego FIRC.. Fly to Antigua.. Antigua Return.. Cirrus CFI Training.. Cirrus Trip Home.. Bahamas Trip 2010.. More Trips.. DA-40 to Texas.. Jabiru LSA St.. Louis.. Atlanta Hartsfield.. Alaska Flight.. First OSH.. Yukon and Alaska.. Extras!.. Awards.. Articles.. Crash Course??.. By: David St.. George, ATP, MCFI, DPE.. Documents.. Private Pilot PTS (airplane).. Commercial Pilot PTS (airplane).. Instrument rating PTS (airplane).. Airline Transport Pilot PTS (airplane).. Flight Review Guide.. Instrument Proficiency Check.. Federal Aviation Regulations.. NTAP, Notices to Airmen Publication.. ASRS (Aviation Safety Reporting System).. CALLBACK Publication.. FAA Pilot/Controller Glossary (P/CG).. Checklist for Private Pilot from Q-Ref.. Pilot s Checkride Guide.. From AOPA.. David and Rod Machado.. at.. AirVenture '09.. Master CFI.. 8 Renewals!.. It's a popular notion that.. pilot examiners are evil by nature.. I wrote this web site to dispel that myth and to make your pilot evaluation (flight test) easier.. This site provides both general guidance and.. specific tools.. you may not have gotten from your CFI.. After years of providing flight tests, the most depressing failures are the ones where it is obvious the applicant is a good pilot but was not prepared thoroughly or correctly for the testing process.. You can be a very good pilot and still be unsuccessful on a check ride if you are not aware of the specific procedures or standards.. Any test or evaluation is an artificial construct and has a format and standards (rules of engagement).. It is critical to understand these published and freely available standards to be successful.. Finishing your flight training (and finally becoming a pilot) necessarily involves a.. check-ride.. with an FAA Designated Pilot Examiner before certification.. For all advanced certificates or ratings, the pilot evaluation is also the rite of passage.. Fortunately, this does not need to be a fearful and upsetting experience.. Every element of any FAA evaluation is published and documented in the appropriate.. Practical Test Standards.. If you download and read this dense little book carefully and arrive for your test thoroughly prepared, the dreaded check-ride can then be an enjoyable learning experience.. no surprises! When you walk into an evaluation with any good examiner carrying a completed copy  ...   make this first FAA encounter much less stressful.. Knowledge is power; go into your check ride fully prepared and it will be much easier and you will truly be able to demonstrate pilot in command authority!.. Scheduling a Test.. Anywhere in the Rochester District!.. I usually give tests in Ithaca (.. KITH.. ), at the.. East Hill Flying Club.. , but I can travel to your location by prior arrangement.. Scheduling.. works best with a minimum of 5 days lead time and even more time is desirable.. Most tests are currently $400 and take 4-5 hours.. Bring an.. airworthy aircraft.. , with documentation, and all your pilot tools.. If a cross-country is required it will be assigned before the evaluation.. Please make sure all calculations are complete and include real weather and performance data.. This must be completed without assistance.. The best way to make initial contact is probably e-mail:.. David's e-mail.. or at East Hill (607) 257-1313 (leave a message if we are all flying).. I still teach flying every day as Chief Instructor at.. Please feel free to visit me at East Hill also if you have questions.. Thanks!.. Other Aviation Adventures!.. Teaching a FIRC in San Diego (WAI).. Cirrus Adventure.. [.. ].. Fly to Antigua!.. Wow what a trip! Fly commercial to KPBI (West Palm Beach International), meet up with Jack in the Cessna 210 and fly to Antigua.. The route was a bit unclear but we resolved some of those issues at the Days Inn on Monday.. The planned stop of Great Inagua has 600 square miles with only 900 inhabitants (however there are 35,000 wild burros on the island)! The one hotel The Pour House (as in when it rains it pours ) is owned by the Morton Salt Company.. like the rest of the island.. Air Journey provided invaluable advice and we stopped in Aguadillo, Puerto Rico instead.. For more on this adventure.. click here.. to view pictures and the travelogue.. The only obvious item noticed in the pre-planning phase was there is lots of blue on the maps! We brought inflatable vests and a raft to rob the sharks of their dinner in case of engine problems; hence the file name sharkbait!.. Here.. is the link for the journey home.. is time sluming it on the island!.. Where CFIs all End Up!.. Three days in Duluth in the snow learning to fly the amazing Cirrus SR-22 and qualifying as an official Cirrus Instructor (CSIP).. Weather Challenge on Return!.. David is a Cirrus Approved Instructor.. Pretending to be Jimmy Buffet on San Salvador at the.. Riding Rock Resort.. Bar.. yup that's milk!.. Trip Out.. |.. Trip Back.. Island Time!.. or text on my mobile phone at (607) 351-3637.. (607) 257-1313..

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  • Title: Airworthiness
    Descriptive info: Airworthiness.. is a Slippery Subject [.. Clubs.. George, ATP, MCFI, DPE.. An aircraft which conforms to its.. type certificate data sheet.. and is in a condition for safe operation, is considered to be.. airworthy.. The definition of airworthiness is on board every certified airplane on the standard airworthiness certificate but also found in FAA Advisory Circulars.. AC 43.. 13-1B.. and.. AC 120-77.. (both mechanic's guides to acceptable repair techniques).. Notice though that the first element, the data sheet is very black and white but the second requirement is fairly subjective.. Your inspection before flight can discover defects that render your aircraft unairworthy (in fact.. anything.. not working causes this!) Certain actions that you then perform, as a pilot, may then restore this plane to an airworthy condition suitable for safe operation.. It is required that every pilot know these requirements and actions.. The type certificate is the engineering standard upon which the aircraft was originally certified and manufactured.. This document contains the required equipment and limitations that are often stated in the Airplane Flight Manual or Pilot's Operating Handbook.. My ancient 1946 7AC Champ (TCDS A-759) represents the original type certificate upon which the whole line of Champion aircraft were built.. The modern Super Decathlon is manufactured under the same ancient TCDS simply modified through the years!.. Similarly, the entire Mooney line is similarly built entirely on the original wooden tail Mooney of the CAR 3 standard.. The CAR or Civil Aviation Regulations, before 1958, pre-dated the current CFRs.. All subsequent Mooney models were created by Supplemental Type Certificates (modifications of the original design.. ) Using this older standard allows a manufacturer a greater latitude than certifying an aircraft under the modern, more restrictive, CFR part 23 (amendment 17) aircraft certification.. Here is a good article on aircraft categories: [.. click.. If something is added subsequent to the original manufacture of the aircraft (either by the manufacturer or a private engineering firm) an.. STC (Supplemental Type Certificate).. may be used to accomplish this change legally.. An STC is basically a new engineering standard and associated data to approve certain modifications to a specified make and model aircraft.. An STC is issued under Subpart E of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 21.. Section 21.. 113 states, in part, that: Any person who alters a product by introducing a major change in type design, not great enough to require a new application for a type certificate under section 21.. 19, shall apply to the Administrator for a supplemental type certificate.. A common STC might be the addition of a new engine or prop or the use of automotive fuel in an aircraft.. The STC documentation must prove this modification was done legally and in an airworthy fashion.. This means the mechanic followed the accepted data for correct installation and you purchased the STC (and theoretically deferred some of the engineering costs).. Usually a Form 337 was also filed with the FAA for major repair and modification of the aircraft.. The 337s become part of the aircraft's record and can be purchased from the FAA.. Interestingly some STCs, such as using auto fuel, might void your manufacturer s warranty.. More detail on these subjects can be found in a good article by Steven Ells called.. Making Modifications.. A certificated pilot and owner/operator is legal to  ...   alter an aircraft that has inoperative equipment.. This is covered in.. AC 91-67.. Basically, a pilot must determine from the Aircraft Flight Manual and/or Pilot Operating Handbook, if the inoperative item is required.. It may be the AFM/POH or an AD or numerous other imperatives that requires an instrument be operational.. If the instrument or equipment is required it must be repaired before flight.. Non-required items may be properly altered and the aircraft then legally flown.. This process is outlined in CFR 14, 91.. 213(d) and basically involves deactivating or removing the offending item, placarding it inoperative and making a maintenance notation in the appropriate record.. Some items may be repaired by a.. pilot.. under CFR 23 preventative maintenance.. Some items will require a qualified mechanic to either repair or deactivate.. Ultimately, the plane must be legal and the pilot must also be comfortable with the level of airworthiness.. To explain this personal test here is an example: Flight at night without an attitude indicator is legal but probably not safe or smart! Flight around the pattern on a sunny, calm day could be easily and safely accomplished even if the fuel gauges were inoperative provided you just filled the tanks.. but it would definitely not be legal.. So there is always a three-part test: is it legal, is it safe, is it smart? The dynamic interface between the pilot, the plane and the planned flight determine the safety of flight.. For your flight test, the best preparation is to envision yourself walking into the FBO and renting the aircraft you intend to fly.. Without ever seeing this aircraft before, how would you know positively that this aircraft was airworthy? What data would you need? This is what your examiner will require from you on test day.. Hopefully, you will later be doing exactly this when you enter an FBO on vacation somewhere and want to rent an aircraft.. You must positively verify the airworthiness of your rental.. This would include logbooks with the most recent inspections for annual, 100 hour, transponder, ELT etc.. Depending on the complexity of your aircraft you might have quite a file.. For your test day, what you want to demonstrate to your evaluator that.. first.. , the aircraft you are flying for the test is indeed airworthy, and.. second.. , you personally know how to analyze and decipher maintenance entries to insure this is true.. Marking the various entries with tabs or post-it notes saves time and demonstrates good organization to your examiner! (Did you also remember to calculate the weight and balance and the take-off and landing performance?).. Is my club required to do 100-hour inspections when conducting flight instruction in club aircraft?.. If you own a private aircraft and hire a flight instructor you are not subject to 91.. 409(b) which requires a 100 hour inspection when flown for hire.. It is also true that if you fly a club aircraft and hire a CFI you do not need a 100 hour inspection.. If however, the club supplies the AIRCRAFT AND CFI for training, a 100 hour inspection is required!.. Any contractual relationship that recommends, restricts or proscribes authorized CFIs would mean the club is required to do 100 hour inspections.. Here is a.. good article from AOPA.. and here is the.. FAA Chief Counsel Opinion.. on this subject..

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  • Title: Aeronautical Experience
    Descriptive info: Aeronautical Experience.. Make Sure You Are Qualified and Please Present That Evidence Neatly.. On one of my first pilot recommendations as a new CFI, I sent a student to an examiner for a practical test with a messy, disorganized logbook (sorry Frank).. The ensuing paper chase to validate his hours and experience wasted lots of time, made the applicant understandably nervous and the examiner irritated; what a bad way to begin a test! I was guilty of starting this person with a huge disadvantage on this important evaluation.. To his credit, he passed this test with flying colors (and.. all susequent flight tests.. too).. After this mistake, I was very careful to emphasize that every applicant should have a neat file with all the pilot paperwork available, the endorsements clearly marked, and the required aeronautical experience labeled and verified.. Several good CFIs have prepared forms to copy in this information so the test gets off to a calm, professional start.. Browse here for.. private.. ,.. instrument.. or.. commercial.. forms that document all the required experience.. If you have any doubt about what is required please check the appropriate regulation or this FAA provided.. aeronautical experience  ...   that the regulation for the new certificate emphasizes that the pilot must receive training at the commercial level for the new certificate.. What point would there be in allowing some previous (lower level) training to serve for what should be advanced commercial preparation? Questions of this sort should be resolved with the examiner before the appointment.. Nothing wastes time and creates ill will faster than getting together for a much anticipated, long-awaited appointment only to realize that the test cannot proceed due to a lack of hours or experience.. We just end up fishing around for another time when the plane the pilot and the examiner (and of course the weather) all can make another appointment.. A good source for answers to complicated questions is.. John Lynch's FAQs.. This is no longer regulatory but provides the spirit and intention of regulations and resolves gray areas.. It sometimes is hard to find an FAA Inspector at work on the weekend so often this is where I have to go to get an answer in a pinch too.. It usually is a better idea in each case to be over-prepared and have more than the minimum required experience..

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  • Title: Pilot Endorsements
    Descriptive info: Pilot Endorsements: AC 61.. nav.. stickers.. All Practical Tests.. that require an endorsement must have this Meta endorsement.. I certify that Mr.. /Ms.. ____________________ has received the training time required within the preceding 60 days in preparation for the (Name of test) (category and class) practical test and find him/her prepared for that test per CFR 61.. 39(a)(6).. (if knowledge test is required and applicant has achieved less than 100%) He/she has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas found deficient on the (Name of Test) aeronautical knowledge test.. {Date} {Signature} {Print Name} {CFI number and expiration}.. This is not a.. complete.. listing of all possible endorsements.. Some have not been listed for the simple reason that there is no common practical use for them.. I hope this helps! Visit the.. FAA Flight Test Homepage.. for complete guidance to flight tests.. Usage Notes:.. Areas that are listed in italics indicate that the instructor completing the endorsement should choose the appropriate input for the section.. Different ratings have different numbers of endorsements that may be required.. SAFE has included all the necessary endorsements for each practical test that is detailed in this document.. Some endorsements in this document can be combined, but it is not a practice I recommend.. By separating each endorsement it increases the clarity of the endorsement and eliminates some of the potential for omission of a required endorsement.. Comm.. IFR.. CFI.. Sport.. Rec.. TSA/ BFR/IPC.. Private Pilot.. Student Pilot Solo Endorsements.. Pre-solo aeronautical knowledge: section 61.. 87(b).. I certify that.. (First name, MI, Last name).. has satisfactorily completed the pre-solo knowledge exam of section 61.. 87(b) for the.. (make and model aircraft).. [DATE] Instructor Name, 1234567CFI, Exp.. 12/31/2010.. Pre-solo flight training: section 61.. 87(c).. (First name, MI, Last name).. has received the required pre-solo training in a.. I have determined He/She has demonstrated the proficiency of section 61.. 87.. (* Sections d-m as appropriate).. and is proficient to make solo flights in (make and model aircraft).. 12/31/2010.. *Choose appropriate section for insertion: (d) single-engine land (e) multi-engine land (f) helicopter (g) gyroplane (h) powered-lift (i) glider (j) airship (k) balloon (l) powered parachute (m) weight-shift control aircraft.. Pre-solo flight training at night: section 61.. 87(c) and (o).. 87.. and is proficient to make solo flights at night in a (make and model aircraft).. *Choose appropriate section for insertion: (d) single-engine land (e) multi-engine land (f) helicopter (g) gyroplane(h) powered-lift (i) glider (j) airship (k) balloon (l) powered parachute (m) weight-shift control aircraft.. Solo flight.. (each additional 90-day period):.. section 61.. 87(n).. has received the required training to qualify for solo flying.. I have determined He/She meets the applicable requirements of section 61.. 87(n) and is proficient to make solo flights in.. (make and model).. Solo takeoffs and landings at another airport within 25 nm: section 61.. 93(b)(1).. has received the required training of section 61.. I have determined that He/She is proficient to practice solo takeoffs and landings at.. (airport name).. The takeoffs and landings at.. are subject to the following conditions:.. (List any applicable conditions or limitations.. ).. Initial solo cross-country flight: section 61.. 93(c)(1).. has received the required solo cross-country training.. I find He/She has met the applicable requirements of section 61.. 93.. , and is proficient to make solo cross-country flights in a.. *Choose appropriate section for insertion: (e) single-engine land (f) multi-engine land (g) helicopter (h) gyroplane(i) powered-lift (j) glider (k) airship (l) powered parachute (m) weight-shift control aircraft.. Solo cross-country flight: section 61.. 93(c)(2).. I have reviewed the cross-country planning of.. I find the planning and preparation to be correct to make the solo flight from.. (location).. to.. (destination).. via.. (route of flight).. with landings at.. (name the airports).. in a.. on.. (date).. Repeated solo cross-country flights not more than 50 nm from the point of departure: section 61.. 93(b)(2).. has received the required training in both directions between and at both.. (airport names).. I have determined that He/She is proficient of section 61.. 93(b)(2) to conduct repeated solo cross-country flights over that route, subject to the following conditions:.. Solo flight in Class B airspace: section 61.. 95(a).. I have determined He/She is proficient to conduct solo flights in.. (name of Class B).. airspace.. Solo flight to, from, or at an airport located in Class B airspace: section 61.. 95(a) and section 91.. 131(b)(1).. 95(a)(1).. I have determined that He/She is proficient to conduct solo flight operations at.. (name of airport).. Private Pilot Endorsements.. Written Test:.. Aeronautical knowledge test: sections 61.. 35(a)(1), 61.. 103(d), and 61.. 105.. has received the required training in accordance with section 61.. I have determined He/She is prepared for the Private Pilot Knowledge Test.. Flight Test:.. Private Pilot Aeronautical Knowledge: section 61.. 105.. 105 and that He/She is prepared for the Private Pilot Practical Test.. Flight proficiency/practical test: sections 61.. 103(f), 61.. 107(b), and 61.. 109.. has received the required training in accordance with sections 61.. 107(b).. (* Sections 1-10 as appropriate).. and 61.. I have determined He/She is prepared for the Private Pilot Practical Test.. *Choose appropriate section for insertion: (1) single-engine land (2) multi-engine land (3) helicopter (4) gyroplane (5) powered-lift (6) glider (7) airship (8) balloon (9) powered parachute (10) weight-shift control aircraft.. Prerequisites for Practical Tests: section 61.. 39(a).. has received the training as required by section 61.. 39(a)(6)(i) within the preceding two calendar months and have determined that he/she is prepared for the Private Pilot practical test.. has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of subject areas shown to be deficient on his/her Private Pilot Airman s Knowledge Test as required by 61.. 39(a)(6)(iii).. For a private pilot flight test remember to.. endorse your applicant for X-C to the test site.. (and return in case the outcome is unfavorable).. The student pilot MUST have all the necessary endorsements to fly as PIC in the plane they are piloting during the test.. Commercial.. Pilot Endorsements.. Aeronautical knowledge test: section 61.. 35(a)(1), section 61.. 123(c), and section 61.. 125.. I have determined that He/She is prepared for the Commercial Pilot aeronautical knowledge test.. Flight proficiency/practical test: section 61.. 123(e), section 61.. 127, and section 61.. 129.. 127 (b).. (* Sections 1-8 as appropriate).. and section 61.. I have determined He/She is prepared for the Commercial Pilot Practical test.. *Choose appropriate section for insertion: (1) single-engine land (2) multi-engine land (3) helicopter (4) gyroplane(5) powered-lift (6) glider (7) airship (8) balloon.. 39(a)(6)(i) within the preceding two calendar months and have determined that he/she is prepared for the Commercial Pilot practical test.. has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of subject areas shown to be deficient on his/her Commercial Pilot Airman s Knowledge Test as required by 61.. Instrument.. Rating Endorsements.. 35(a)(1) and section 61.. 65(a) and (b).. I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training of section 61.. 65(b).. I have determined that He/She is prepared for the Instrument Pilot Rating knowledge test.. Aeronautical Knowledge/Flight proficiency/practical test: section 61.. 65(a).. 65(b)(c) and (d).. I have determined He/She is prepared for the Instrument (airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift) practical test.. 39(a)(6)(i) within the preceding two calendar months and have determined that he/she  ...   airport located in Class B, C, or D airspace, or to, from, through, or on an airport having an operational control tower: section 61.. 325.. I have determined He/She is proficient to conduct operations in.. (List category of airspace approved, Class B, C, and/or D).. airspace, at an airport located in Class B, C, or D airspace, or to, from, through, or on an airport having an operational control tower.. Light-sport aircraft that has a VH greater than 87 knots CAS: section 61.. 327.. has received the required training required in accordance with section 61.. 327 in a.. I have determined Him/Her proficient to act as PIC of a light-sport aircraft that has a VH greater than 87 knots (kts) CAS.. Flight Instructor with Sport Pilot Rating Endorsements.. Taking the fundamentals of instructing knowledge test: section 61.. 405(a)(1).. I have determined that He/She is prepared for the Fundamentals of Instruction Knowledge Test.. Taking sport pilot flight instructor aeronautical knowledge test: section 61.. 35(a) (1) and section 61.. 405(a).. 405(a)(2).. I have determined that He/She is prepared for the Sport Pilot Knowledge Test.. Taking the flight instructor flight proficiency check to provide training if a different category or class of aircraft.. (additional category/class).. : section 61.. 419 and section 61.. 409.. 409 and have determined He/She is prepared for a proficiency check for the flight instructor with a sport pilot rating in a.. (aircraft category and class).. Passing the flight instructor flight proficiency check to provide training in a different category or class of aircraft (additional category/class): section 61.. has met the requirements in accordance with section 61.. I have determined that He/She is proficient and authorized for the additional.. flight instructor privilege.. Taking the flight instructor practical test: section 61.. 409 and section 61.. 411.. 409 and met the aeronautical experience requirements of section 61.. I have determined He/She is prepared for the flight instructor with a sport pilot rating practical test in a.. Passing the flight instructor practical test: section 61.. 417, issued by a DPE.. I have determined that He/She is proficient and authorized for the.. 39(a)(6)(i) within the preceding two calendar months and have determined that he/she is prepared for the Sport Pilot Instructor practical test.. has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of subject areas shown to be deficient on his/her Sport Pilot Instructor and Fundamentals of Instructing Airman s Knowledge Tests as required by 61.. 405(b)(1)(ii).. I have determined that He/She is competent and possess instructional proficiency in stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery procedures.. 12/31/2010 NOTE: This spin training endorsement is only required of flight instructor applicants for the airplane and glider ratings.. Ground Instructor Endorsement.. Ground instructor who does not meet the recent experience requirements: section 61.. 217(b).. has demonstrated satisfactory proficiency on the appropriate ground instructor knowledge and training subjects of section 61.. 213(a)(3) and (a)(4).. 12/31/2010 NOTE: Signed by CFI or CGI, as appropriate; the expiration date would apply only to a CFI.. Recreational.. 96(b)(3), and section 61.. 97(b).. 97(b) 1-12.. I have determined that He/She is prepared for the Recreational Pilot Knowledge test.. 96(b)(5), section 61.. 98(a) and (b), and section 61.. 99.. 98(b)1 and section 61.. I have determined that He/She is prepared for the Recreational Pilot Practical test.. 39(a)(6)(i) within the preceding two calendar months and have determined that he/she is prepared for the Recreational Pilot practical test.. has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of subject areas shown to be deficient on his/her Recreational Pilot Airman s Knowledge Test as required by 61.. Other Recreational Pilot Endorsements.. Recreational pilot to operate within 50 nm of the airport where training was received: section 61.. 101(b).. I have determined He/She is competent to operate at the (name of airport).. Recreational pilot to act as PIC on a flight that exceeds 50 nm of the departure airport: section 61.. 101(c).. has received the required cross-country training of section 61.. I have determined that He/She is proficient in cross-country flying of part 61, subpart E.. Recreational pilot with less than 400 flight hours and not logged PIC time within the preceding 180 days: section 61.. 101(g).. has received the required 180-day recurrent training of section 61.. 101(g) in a (make and model aircraft).. I have determined Him/Her proficient to act as PIC of that aircraft.. Recreational pilot to conduct solo flights for the purpose of obtaining an additional certificate or rating while under the supervision of an authorized flight instructor: section 61.. 101(i).. 87 in a (make and model aircraft).. I have determined He/She is prepared to conduct a solo flight on (date) under the following conditions:.. (List all conditions which require endorsement, e.. g.. , flight which requires communication with air traffic control, flight in an aircraft for which the pilot does not hold a category/class rating, etc.. 101(d).. I have determined He/She is proficient to conduct operations in Class B, C, or D airspace, at an airport located in Class B, C, or D airspace, or to, from, through, or on an airport having an operational control tower.. Other.. Endorsements.. TSA Citizenship Verification Endorsement.. I certify that __________ has presented me a ________________establishing that he or she is a U.. S.. Citizen or national in accordance with 49 CFR 1552.. 3(h) [DATE] Instructor Name, 1234567CFI, Exp.. Completion of a flight review: section 61.. 56(a) and (c).. (pilot certificate).. (certificate number).. , has satisfactorily completed a flight review of section 61.. 56(a) on (date).. Completion of an instrument proficiency check: section 61.. 57(d).. , has satisfactorily completed the instrument proficiency check of section 61.. 57(d) in a.. (list make and model of aircraft).. To act as PIC in a complex airplane: section 61.. 31(e).. , has received the required training of section 61.. 31(e) in a.. (make and model of complex airplane).. I have determined that He/She is proficient in the operation and systems of a complex airplane.. To act as PIC in a high performance airplane: section 61.. 31(f).. ,.. 31(f) in a.. (make and model of high performance airplane).. I have determined that He/She is proficient in the operation and systems of a high performance airplane.. To act as PIC in a pressurized aircraft capable of high altitude operations: section 61.. 31(g).. 31(g) in a.. (make and model of pressurized aircraft).. I have determined that He/She is proficient in the operation and systems of a pressurized aircraft.. To act as PIC in a tailwheel airplane: section 61.. 31(i).. 31(i) in a.. (make and model of tailwheel airplane).. I have determined that He/She is proficient in the operation of a tailwheel airplane.. To act as PIC of an aircraft in solo operations when the pilot does not hold an appropriate category/class rating: section 61.. 31(d)(3).. 31(d)(3) to serve as a PIC in a.. (category and class of aircraft).. I have determined that He/She is prepared to serve as PIC in that.. (make and model of aircraft).. Retesting after failure of a knowledge or practical test: section 61.. 49.. has received the additional.. (flight and/or ground, as appropriate).. training as required by section 61.. (name the knowledge/practical test).. More guidance on flight tests visit.. FAA Flight Test Homepage..

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  • Title: Contacting David
    Descriptive info: Get Ready, Contact.. Use the PTS checklist, register on IACRA, and let's go!.. David is currently a fairly busy boy! Running the flying club and family time leave little time for scheduling tests.. in a hurry.. : e.. can you do a flight test tomorrow?.. This gotta go now attitude makes any examiner wonder how organized and prepared an applicant is anyway.. I usually leave Saturdays and Thursdays open as flight-test days but can also make room just about anywhere.. I do encourage scheduling a week in advance and prefer the initial contact from the recommending instructor, rather than the applicant, to insure that the applicant is ready and the schedule is realistic.. All examiners are now required to accept only the.. IACRA format.. This requires you to log onto this government site (Internet Explorer only) and fill our the application here.. Your instructor will need to log in also and digitally sign the application.. I will need your FTN before the test can start to retrieve the application.. Often the best contact is e-mail:.. email David.. or cell phone (607) 351-3637.. I am always willing to answer questions regarding test structure or expectations but also recommend a careful reading of the PTS and.. Jeppesen's Practical Test Guide.. The first order of business when you sit down to take any FAA evaluation is qualification.. This is the determination that you, as an applicant for a particular certificate, have all the required hours and experience for the certificate you  ...   evaluation and have to go home disappointed.. Incidentally, this is not a failure, the test never got started! The FAA is very clear on this point.. The evaluation does not begin until the applicant is qualified for the test through examination of records and the application is accepted by the DPE.. The absolute best example of poor preparation was a couple of years ago when a fellow showed up for a private pilot evaluation on a day with a 1500 ft ceiling and four miles visibility.. I was surprised he even flew in with that kind of weather but we got down to work after some discussion (we can often get the oral done even if the weather prevents flying till another day.. ) But as we looked through his paperwork, not only was he unqualified on paper with only 4.. 1 hours of solo X-C and 2 hours of night, but he didn't have a photo ID or even a wallet to show who he was! The 8710-1 form looked like a ransom note, torn in places and crossed out.. Clearly, this applicant was not even qualified to fly solo into Ithaca without ID (or any endorsement for the trip as it turned out) much less attempt a test in marginal VFR.. This is also a case where I called the CFI to see just what planet he was on sending a student with such inadequate preparation.. To contact me:.. or call me at East Hill (607) 257-1313..

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  • Title: Testing Conditions
    Descriptive info: Testing Conditions:.. Why would you test on a lousy day?.. I am continually amazed at applicants that insist on flying a flight test in absolutely crappy weather.. You should always remember there are three outcomes to every FAA evaluation once its started.. white slip, pink slip and discontinuance! Remember also that you, as the applicant, are pilot in command and responsible for accepting the weather conditions for the test.. You should exercise good judgement here for a happy outcome.. Granted, some situations might necessitate accepting an extreme test environment.. We had a student from Japan at our school who got down to the absolute last day before getting on the plane to Tokyo.. We started this test about a half hour before dusk and completed the high altitude elements (steep turns, slow flight, stalls) first so he had some horizon reference.. I remember doing the turns around a point using the control tower (with permission from the amused controller) and then the navigation element as it got dark.. Another test occurred during an east coast blackout.. The tower at Ithaca was fuctioning  ...   is the culmination of a lot of work and expense so find a day where you are comfortable and can demonstrate your abilities.. On the other side of the coin, there is a standing (and somewhat true) joke that a pilot examiner will never ever see a crosswind landing demonstrated on a flight test.. Crafty applicants may try to pick a day with a favorable wind.. or wait for CAVU and no wind.. (This happens only twice a year in Upstate New York).. Verbally quizzing the correct technique for crosswind landing is certainly not going to reveal an applicant's inflight competence! To ascertain the skill here, you might find yourself diverted to an airport with a crossing runway for a more sure test of your abilities.. The answer to all this is to have good technique and a set of personal minimums that are well thought out and realistic.. Any competent examiner will be impressed with an applicant that states their personal level of comfort and flies to an acceptable standard within those limits.. If the weather deals you an unworkable day.. discontinue!..

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  • Title: Common Errors on Practical Tests
    Descriptive info: Common Errors On Practical Tests!.. There are lots of ways to be.. un.. successful on a practical test because there is a lot to accomplish and all of it to fairly high standards.. Some of the errors follow predictable, repeatable patterns that I will try to point out here at each level of experience.. Frequently, none of these lapses are reasons for immediate failure in and of themselves, they just make your whole job more difficult! If any task is unsuccessful, the entire test is unsuccessful and this whole area of operation must be retested.. You do however, get credit for everything you performed to the standards So in a way, the dreaded pink slip is a really a credit slip for everything that went right because without it on a re-test, you would have to fly an entire test again.. For starters, let's describe how any test should go when everything is working correctly.. To perform your best on any evaluation, arrive.. on time.. well-rested.. properly nourished.. Make sure you allow enough time to prepare so you do not feel compelled to stay up all night cramming and organizing.. To achieve this goal utilize some pilot skills: make a check list for items to accomplish ahead of time  ...   documents and experience records.. (log and endorsements) to prove that you are qualified to be PIC and to take the flight test you intend to take.. Bring your flight planning tools, headsets and all your pilot paraphernalia.. Current charts and a FAR/AIM.. would also be essential to have along.. Remember, on the oral your documents are resources that you can consult! Please sit down with your CFI and review your paperwork for the evaluation, all your.. experience and endorsements.. so there are no surprises that prevent us from testing.. In the aircraft and during the flight, using the checklist carefully will prevent rushing and keep you organized.. Clear the area carefully.. and deliberately before every maneuver and keep a look out throughout the test.. This is one of the emphasis items you can find in the preface of every Practical Test Standard (along with many other essential tips).. Clearing also gives you more time so you don't feel rushed.. Prompt correction.. of any deviations is essential and wins big points with any examiner.. We are watching carefully and especially value pilot-in-command authority which is demonstrated by handling the plane precisely.. (Just because you have plus and minus 100 feet does not mean you have to use all of it!)..

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  • Title: CFI Stuff
    Descriptive info: CFI Concerns.. Preparing the Candidate.. The CFI recommending a potential pilot, especially on their first check ride, is responsible to carefully prepare and guide this flight candidate to a successful outcome.. In test preparation, a lot of emphasis is usually placed on the flying performance with less emphasis on the oral, and often the legal qualification part of experience and endorsements gets entirely ignored.. I have, unfortunately, had many flight tests where the CFI was primarily responsible for the failure or just the disappointment when a test cannot be conducted for simple technical reasons.. The most obvious lapse would be a missing endorsement or not enough experience in a particular area.. (The on-line.. IACRA application.. filters for these errors) Some applicants arrive without a current solo endorsement (.. we cannot fly a test!.. ) or there is no cross-country endorsement to get to our airport (or to get back home in the case of a failure).. To be professional, the CFI must be vigilant about the paperwork too or all the time and money spent in preparation is wasted and major disappointment is the only outcome.. Some form of.. experience guide.. is a great help to organize all the experience and present it to the examiner in an easily readable form.. If you are available on the phone sometimes we can sort out the difficulties if the numbers do not add up.. Another under-appreciated area where a CFI can be helpful is by giving the potential pilot an overview of the flight test process so they know what to expect.. Many applicants are unaware that the oral is.. required.. to precede all flight and that all the airworthiness items absolutely must be verified and acceptable or the FAA does not allow us go fly.. Also, having your candidate practice the flight test maneuvers with another instructor as a mock check ride is often helpful both to give you another view of your work and provide your student with a fresh opinion (and new person in the cockpit to practice with).. CFI Professionalism.. I guess the big story here is not a surprise: it takes time to become good at almost anything.. Being a teacher of aviation is no different.. And it is an unfortunate fact that being a flight instructor is commonly viewed as merely a transition to a real job and not an end in itself.. This has been the norm for years, supported by industry demands and a lousy pay scale.. There are notable standout exceptions who persist in teaching and flourish but they are few and far between.. Many of the Master Instructors would be examples.. These are (mostly) people dedicated to teaching flying.. SOoo, what else makes someone good at this unique profession? There are obviously long-time CFIs that are still lousy! There is a certain valuable predisposition involving empathy and good human relations (and LOTS of patience).. Great stick skills are low on the priority scale, we are talking teacher here, not pilot..  ...   successfully backing off their self criticism in the initial training phase so they can progress; first in big outline form then with greater precision.. It is important to first get all the darts on the dartboard, then move them closer to the center.. Perfection in flying is elusive, but worthy goal not often experienced.. Perfection certainly will not consistently be achieved in the pre-solo phase of flight training.. Coaching a sport is often a very good metaphor for teaching flying.. Our job is really to help and shape but also to progressively work to get out of the airplane and become superfluous, starting with the very first day.. We should be fostering independence.. We are pretty quickly on the sidelines watching the game be played.. We better have developed a competent flier or the result might be unhappy.. we are not allowed to lose one in this game! It is easy to fall into the omniscient, constantly present aviation god who saves the day (and strokes the ego).. Parenting is another analogy for the process of teaching flying.. Done well, they become competent individuals and safely fly away!.. To teach well, a CFI needs to have a very clear picture of the safe and effective pilot they are working to create.. What are the skills, knowledge and judgment that a good pilot must possess? Just a monkey wiggling the stick to the PTS standards is not good enough.. The PTS is not a training syllabus and constitutes only the absolute minimum standard for pilot certification.. I would argue that a constant interplay between attention to detail but also awareness of the big picture must always be present in every pilot.. 85% of accidents are pilot error! These cognitive skills are difficult to teach (or test) and do not explicitly find their way into the PTS.. A good instructor must be aware of psychological principles both to be an effective educator and to engender safe attitudes in their pilots.. I think we all know that the raw material of the beginner student is critically important to what our final pilot will become.. There is an acceptable spectrum of students and no CFI can remedy years of bad habits, borderline psychosis or suicidal tendencies in 50-70 hours of dual.. Some people are not suited to be pilots unfortunately.. It is a professional duty to evaluate and dissuade unsafe or unsuitable candidates.. It is however, extremely difficult to see immediately what will develop with people who initially might be marginal.. I can relate many examples of people who almost scared me initially, or made me sigh and shake my head, who developed eventually into good pilots.. The challenging students will certainly make you a better flight instructor.. you will have to be better to get the job done.. The young, talented, golden hands student that progresses so rapidly make you feel wonderful, but teach you nothing as a CFI.. Check the table links to explore areas of the professional CFI toolbox..

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  • Title: Pitch and Power Made Easy
    Descriptive info: Understanding Pitch and Power.. Classic Aviation Controversy Made Easy!.. Any glider pilot will tell you how to control airspeed; to go slower, raise the nose and conversely, lower it for more speed.. Set an outside pitch reference then verify this with a glance inside at the gauge.. I fly and teach in gliders and use this same approach to power planes.. The throttle allows the privilege of climbing (which is more difficult in gliders) and the pitch for each airspeed will be different depending on the power setting.. The energy management issue gets confusing when you have an engine and chemical energy at your disposal.. It sure can seem just like a car, e.. add power to go faster (and this works to a point.. ) The most important reason not to think in this manner is due to the unreliability of this premise.. It.. is.. true that full power will give you the fastest speed available in an aircraft.. Unfortunately,.. full power will also allow you to fly the slowest speed in an aircraft!.. That is where the real problem lies.. As you fly slower (the critical phases of flight) mishandling pitch and power can get you in trouble fast.. In his classic book.. Stick and Rudder.. , Wolfgang Langewiesche cautions: Get rid at the outset of the idea that the airplane is only an air-going sort of automobile.. It isn't.. it goes on wings.. And a wing is an odd thing, strangely behaved, hard to understand, tricky to handle.. In many important respects, a wing's behavior is exactly contrary to common sense.. (see the Barry Schiff article below Fatal Instinct ) He goes on the explain the need for overcoming human instincts and trusting instead to trained responses.. Langewiesche spends a lot of time explaining angle of attack (the true secret here in the pitch/power controversy).. This web site is not intended to teach aerodynamics but I do caution pilots and CFIs who have not thought carefully on these issues to study this area of flight carefully or you will be forever unsafe and unconfident.. The aircraft will act in ways you will not understand.. If you study and learn applied  ...   sign hung around his neck pointing out why AOA is an unforgiving and immutable aerodynamic principle.. He dramatically demonstrated you can even stall a superb aircraft like the F-16 if you mishandle angle of attack.. Notice that if you freeze this video as the ground comes into view, you cannot determine AOA.. it looks like a fly by picture.. Only in motion can you determine AOA.. Similarly, if you are on final to a runway the single snapshot is largely useless, we must carefully monitor trend (the picture as it changes over time).. This is one reason that a very disciplined outside view is necessary for reliable aircraft control.. The flight instruments should be consulted very briefly and only to verify the performance (not change it).. Every serious aerodynamics source is consistent on this point of pitching for AOA and hence airspeed.. It is true that it is more psychologically difficult to initially learn to fly this way (this area of flying is seriously counter-intuitive).. If we were just flying the Toyota of the sky and powered down the glide slope life would be more consistent.. Cessna has for years put steering wheels in their planes and also once encouraged people to drive in the sky to sell planes and the ease of flight training.. As it turns out, avoiding this common negative transfer from automobiles is one of our greatest challenges in learning to fly correctly.. Time spend analyzing and internalizing the correct aerodynamic mental model is essential to safety.. If you are low and slow on final and mistakenly pitch for altitude and power for airspeed you will just climb the induced drag side of the power curve and end up a statistic.. Easing up on the yoke to maintain airspeed and adding power (along with right rudder) to maintain or regain altitude, will bring you back to a stabilized glide path.. I highly recommend Rich Stowell's book.. Emergency Maneuver Training.. for a thorough review of aerodynamics in a very understandable fashion and his new.. Stall/Spin Awareness.. as a perfect advanced level text.. His articles, linked on his web site, are super.. Pursue accuracy in your knowledge and precision in your flying!..

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  • Title: Maneuvering Flight
    Descriptive info: Maneuvering Flight.. Just getting around the pattern is one of the most hazardous operations in aviation! Maneuvering flight, which includes take-off, landing and flight below 1000' agl accounts for 67% of all accidents and about 21% of all fatal accidents.. This would not be so shocking if we spent a lot of time here, but pilots spend only about 5% of their time in the pattern.. 67% of accidents occur where we spend only 5% of our time!.. This distressing statistic indicates that pilots are not skillful in basic aircraft control.. It also demonstrates that pilots are either unaware of the risks in maneuvering flight or they are not handling them well.. As soon as the pilot certificate is in hand, trips and fun-flying dominate pilot attention and the idea of practicing is repugnant.. Consequently, hard-won skills deteriorate rapidly.. Pilots launch off and drone for several hours and land (once) at their destination.. Pretty soon any flight slower than cruise is scary and landings start to become a real adventure! Paul Craig, in his book.. Killing Zone.. , documents the dramatic rise in accidents after pilot certification.. Part of this is exploring new territory without supervision, but lots also would be deterioration of basic skills.. Recurrent training must be part of every pilot's repertoire and would  ...   time I line up on final I guarantee you I state two things clearly to myself.. The first is this is show time so I sit up, get real sharp and pay attention.. The second is I can always go-around if something happens.. This can be either something I mess up, conditions on the runway, something with the plane.. etc.. If anything is not working, I am out of there for another try.. Basic airmanship is often neglected in primary training, especially in the bright glow of new glass flight displays.. Looking out the window and using the rudder correctly have unfortunately been relegated to the trash bin of history.. The new attitude seems to be: If I can engage the autopilot on take-off and it will drive this fine machine to my destination, who needs to fly.. I really wish people with an attitude like this would stay away from self-powered flight and hire a real pilot.. The bad publicity of these glass planes hitting the ground (and buildings in NYC) is making every other pilot look like a dope.. Learn the rudder well.. and the various uses for this basic control! Please work to overcome the automotive paradigm.. We are absolutely NOT driving in the sky.. Practice often and strive for excellence in your flying..

    Original link path: /maneuveringflight.html
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  • Title: CFI Motivation
    Descriptive info: Staying Motivated.. Burn-out is an occupational hazard for flight instructors.. I vividly remember when I had accumulated my first 1000 hours of dual given and thought it was impossible to teach even one more hour.. Every time I flew another pattern lesson I felt a creeping rage growing and knew I was hitting the wall of what was humanly possible.. Now I have over 9,000 hours of dual given.. (The lobotomy sure helped!) But seriously, the solution is a cognitive re-framing of the instructional session.. We all easily fall into the error of making VFR lesson #7 the same for everyone.. We have skills to teach and know the drill so off we go.. Big mistake! Every lesson is unique; that is a different person you are flying with possessing unique background, needs and abilities! If you focus (correctly) on this unique student, you quickly realize that you never gave this lesson before and this is all new..  ...   the window and you feel entirely useless.. Safety is also compromised because we are not going flying with the level of awareness and alertness required to even be safe.. Another method of staying motivated is to actively pursue new learning on your own; sharpen the saw as Stephen Covey says.. Not only does this expand your toolbox of skills, it revitalizes you.. I recommend trying gliders or seaplanes or some other new flight experience.. This not only expands your aviation horizons, it helps you commiserate with your students and realize that initial lack of proficiency is normal and expected.. This recharges your batteries and helps you examine the teacher/student role from their angle.. I recently took some helicopter dual and in addition to being a (happy) klutz at the controls, I developed great admiration for the CFI who patiently guided me through hovering again.. I felt a kinship with my students who tried hard but did not initially succeed..

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